According to MP Jean-Baptiste Poncet-Delpech and others, "all of Montauban" knew that Lefranc de Pompignan was the adulterous father of the future Olympe de Gouges. [15], After her arrest, the commissioners searched her house for evidence. Gouges took to the street, and on behalf of the French people proclaimed "Let us plunge into the Seine! [31] At the 1848 Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, the rhetorical style of the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen was employed to paraphrase the Declaration of Independence into the Declaration of Sentiments,[33] which demanded women's right to vote. "[49], French Wikisource has original text related to this article: Olympe de Gouges, Significant civil and political events by year, The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller, France Preserved, or The Tyrant Dethroned, Olympe de Gouges at the Revolutionary tribunal, Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman, 1989 p. 235, Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p. 311, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, Women's Petition to the National Assembly, "I Foresaw it All: The Amazing Life and Oeuvre of Olympe de Gouges", Olympe de Gouges, a Daughter of Quercy on her Way to the Panthéon, "Olympe de Gouges's trial and the affective politics of denaturalization in France", A website containing English translations of de Gouges' works, An extensive article about Olympe de Gouges, An excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting),, French people executed by guillotine during the French Revolution, 18th-century French dramatists and playwrights, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 13:44. Mit dieser Erklärung hinterließ Olympe de Gouges ein Dokument, das den Versuch einer geistigen Revolution innerhalb des revolutionären Prozesses bezeugt. She attempted to unmask the villains through the literary productions which she had printed and put up. She must possess equally the right to mount the speaker's platform. [41] In the final act of l'Esclavage des Noirs Gouges lets the French colonial master, not the slave, utter a prayer for freedom: "Let our common rejoicings be a happy portent of liberty". The slave protagonist comments on the situation in France "The power of one Master alone is in the hands of a thousand Tyrants who trample the People under foot. Die Menschenrechte der Französischen Revolution galten ausschließlich für Männer. The actress Véronique Genest read an excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman. [14], As the Revolution progressed, she became more and more vehement in her writings. [7], In 1790 and 1791, in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti), free people of colour and African slaves revolted in response to the ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. In her political writings Gouges had not called for women to abandon their homes, but she was cast by the politicians as an enemy of the natural order, and thus enemy of the ruling Jacobin party. She is honoured in many street names across France, in the Salle Olympe de Gouges exhibition hall in rue Merlin, Paris, and the Parc Olympe de Gouges in Annemasse. She was possibly the illegitimate daughter of Jean-Jacques Le Franc de Caix (the Marquis de Pompignan), himself a man of letters and a playwright (among whose claims to fame in… The influential Abraham-Joseph Bénard remarked "Mme de Gouges is one of those women to whom one feels like giving razor blades as a present, who through their pretensions lose the charming qualities of their sex... Every woman author is in a false position, regardless of her talent". [41] Olympe de Gouges was a French playwright and political activist whose writings on women's rights and abolitionism reached a large audience in various countries. Details are limited. At the end of the 18th century influential political actors such as Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès were not convinced of the case for equality. [13], Gouges was associated with the Gironde faction, who were targeted by the more radical Montagnard faction. 2007 French presidential contender Ségolène Royal expressed the wish that Gouges' remains be moved to the Panthéon. She believed that she was the illegitimate daughter of Jean-Jacques Lefranc, Marquis de Pompignan. With the support of Rozières she established a theatre company. [2] Gouges was also attacked by those who thought that a woman's proper place was not in the theatre. [2], In Paris she started a relationship with the wealthy Jacques Biétrix de Rozières, but refused his marriage proposal. The People will one day burst their chains and will claim all its rights under Natural law. In that pamphlet she expressed, for the first time, her famous statement: "A woman has the right to mount the scaffold. Finally, her poster Les trois urnes, ou le salut de la Patrie, par un voyageur aérien ("The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller") of 1793, led to her arrest. 14. In her letter she argued that he had been duped–that he was guilty as a king, but innocent as a man, and that he should be exiled rather than executed. Her proposition for a political order remained largely unchanged. In 1791, in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, she wrote the Déclaration des droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne ("Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen"). Sie muss sich ständig gegen Verleumdungen wehren und erlebt, wie ihre Stücke und Beiträge abgelehnt werden – und andere sich ihre Ideen zu eigen machen. She remained close to Rozières throughout the French Revolution. Born Marie Gouze she first adopted the name Olympe de Gouges for her early plays. Women were not granted political rights in revolutionary France, thus Gouges used her pamphlets to enter the public debate and she argued that the debate needed to include the female civic voice. Marie-Olympe de Gouges was born Marie Gouzes in Montauban, in southern France, on December 31, 1748. "[48], Public letters, or pamphlets, were the primary means for the working class and women writers to engage in the public debate of revolutionary France. But the play closed after three performances; the lobby had paid hecklers to sabotage the performances.[6]. Wikipedia: Olympe de Gouges in der freien Enzyklopädie, Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf ›, Tod mit 45 Jahren am 3. They never forgave her, and she paid for her carelessness with her head. Geboren wurde sie allerdings schon 1748 (und nicht 1755). Bild »Christine de Pizan« [M]: PD — Zeichenerklärung: [M] bearbeitet — Lizenztexte: CC BY-SA 3.0 — Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf ›. Under the specious mask of republicanism, her enemies have brought me remorselessly to the scaffold."[18]. [25], 1793 has been described as a watershed for the construction of women's place in revolutionary France, and the deconstruction of the Girondins' Marianne. Like other pamphlet writers in revolutionary France, she spoke from the margins and spoke of her experience as a citizen, with a desire to influence the ongoing public debate. Her 1788 pamphlet Reflections on blacks and the play l'Esclavage des Noirs on the slave trade made her, alongside Marquis de Condorcet, one of France's earliest public opponents of slavery. Olympe de Gouges - Lettre a Monseigneur le duc d'Orleans premier prince du sang, 1789.djvu 2,528 × 3,812, 8 pages; 434 KB Juli 1793 wurde auf der Brücke Saint-Michel in Paris Olympe de Gouges verhaf­tet, als sie zusam­men mit dem Buchhänd­ler-Verle­ger Costard und dem Plaka­tie­rer Trottier ein Plakat anbrin­gen wollte mit dem Titel: „Les trois urnes ou le salut de la patrie, par un voyager aérien“. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. The anti-imperial Irish Rebellion of 1798 was whipped up by Anglo-Irish women such as Maria Edgeworth, but the quest of Catholics for political rights was brutally suppressed by the British military. They were widely circulated within and outside France. In early 1789 she published Patriotic remarks setting out her proposals for social security, care for the elderly, institutions for homeless children, hostels for unemployed, and the introduction of a jury system. Olympe de Gouges is considered as one of the first feminists. "[32] Revolutionary novels were published that put women at the centre of violent struggle, such as the narratives written by Helen Maria Williams and Leonora Sansay. It will teach the Tyrants just what a people united by long oppression and enlightened by sound philosophy can do". The square was inaugurated by the mayor of the 3rd arrondissement, Pierre Aidenbaum, along with then first deputy mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo. Women were by definition not afforded any rights of active citizenship. [19] Olympe was executed only a month after Condorcet had been proscribed, and just three days after the Girondin leaders had been guillotined. In her defence of Louis XVI de Gouges expresses her customary fair-mindedness, in her understanding of the Convention's Parisian bias, her … Politically, Olympe de Gouges supported King Louis XVI, during his trial. This earned her the ire of many hard-line republicans, even into the next generation—such as the 19th-century historian Jules Michelet, a fierce apologist for the Revolution, who wrote, "She allowed herself to act and write about more than one affair that her weak head did not understand. September 1791 An die Königin Die Rechte der Frau Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin – Präambel – Artikel 1 bis 17 – Postambel Muster eines Gesellschaftsvertrages von Mann und Frau Anekdote Postskriptum Leta 1791 je izdala eno njenih najodmevnejših del Deklaracijo o pravicah ženske in državljanke, v kateri je opozarjala na spolno neenakost v francoski družbi. But like the writings of Etta Palm d'Aelders, Theroigne de Mericourt, Claire Lacombe and Marquis de Condorcet, her arguments fell on deaf ears. Both Gouges and her prosecutor used this play as evidence in her trial. A Biography of Olympe de Gouges. In the first act (only the first act and a half remain), Marie-Antoinette is planning defense strategies to retain the crumbling monarchy and is confronted by revolutionary forces, including Gouges herself. She expresses faith in the Estates General and in reference to the estates of the realm, that the people of France (Third Estate) would be able to ensure harmony between the three estates, that is clergy, nobility and the people. Olympe de Gouges wrote her famous " Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen " shortly after the French constitution of 1791 was created in the same year. Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) hieß eigentlich Marie Gouze. Her body was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery. [43], Gouges wrote her famous Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen shortly after the French Constitution of 1791 was ratified by King Louis XVI, and dedicated it to his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. Frequently these pamphlets were intended to stir up public anger. Furthermore active citizenship was two-tiered, with those who could vote and those who were fit for public office. De Gouges' Sterbeort … Gouges, Olympe de: Die Rechte der Frau und andere Schriften./ Les droits de la femme. In transferring sovereignty to the nation the constitution dismantled the old regime, but Gouges argued that it did not go far enough. Olympe de Gouges schreibt: „Selbstbewusst und selbstlos wie dieser nämliche Mercier wurde ich umso umtriebiger.“ Mercier soll recht behalten. [1] Her mother afforded her a bourgeois education. Olympe de Gouges wurde in Montauban in Frankreich geboren und verstarb in Paris (auf dem Revolutionsplatz, heute Place de la Concorde) . That piece demanded a plebiscite for a choice among three potential forms of government: the first, a unitary republic, the second, a federalist government, or the third, a constitutional monarchy. The French Constitution marked the birth of the short-lived constitutional monarchy and implemented a status based citizenship. Montauban – Frankreich. [2] Gouges attended the artistic and philosophical salons of Paris, where she met many writers, including La Harpe, Mercier, and Chamfort, as well as future politicians such as Brissot and Condorcet. [46], As the politics of revolutionary France changed and progressed Gouges failed to become an actor on the political stage, but in her letters offered advice to the political establishment.